What is collateral channel function?

Anastomotic channels, known as collateral vessels, can develop in the heart as an adaptation to ischemia [1,2]. They serve as conduits that bridge severe stenoses or connect a territory supplied by one epicardial coronary artery with that of another [3].

What are collateral channels of ventilation?

The phenomenon of collateral ventilation in the human lung is defined as “the ventilation of alveolar structures through passages or channels that bypass the normal airways”.

What are the 3 channels of collateral ventilation?

Anatomy of Collateral Ventilation Collateral ventilation is thought to occur through alveolar pores of Kohn (3–13 μm diameter), interbronchiolar Martin’s channels (30 μm diameter) and bronchoalveolar Lambert’s channels (120 μm diameter) (4–6) (Figure 1).

What are collateral vessels?

Collateral vessels are small blood vessels that connect the aorta (the major vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body) and the main pulmonary artery (carrying oxygen-depleted blood from heart to lungs).

How does collateral circulation work?

Collateral circulation is a network of tiny blood vessels, and, under normal conditions, not open. When the coronary arteries narrow to the point that blood flow to the heart muscle is limited (coronary artery disease), collateral vessels may enlarge and become active.

How does collateral circulation develop?

Contrary to the belief that collateral vessels develop over time in chronic stenotic condition, there exists a phenomenon that collateral circulation develops immediately in acute stenosis or occlusion of the arteries and it seems to be triggered by fluid shear stress, which occurs between the territories of stenotic/ …

What are the 2 collateral ventilation pathways of the lungs?

Notes: Interalveolar ventilation through the pores of Kohn. Bronchiole–alveolar ventilation through channels of Lambert. Interbronchiolar ventilation through channels of Martin.

What is collateral circulation?

What is collateral circulation? Collateral circulation is a network of tiny blood vessels, and, under normal conditions, not open. This allows blood to flow around the blocked artery to another artery nearby or to the same artery past the blockage, protecting the heart tissue from injury.

What is tidal volume?

Tidal volume is the amount of air that moves in or out of the lungs with each respiratory cycle. It measures around 500 mL in an average healthy adult male and approximately 400 mL in a healthy female. It is a vital clinical parameter that allows for proper ventilation to take place.

What is an example of a collateral?

Mortgages — The home or real estate you purchase is often used as collateral when you take out a mortgage. Car loans — The vehicle you purchase is typically used as collateral when you take out a car loan. Secured credit cards — A cash deposit is used as collateral for secured credit cards.

How do collateral vessels form?

Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia.

How long does it take to develop collateral circulation?

Cardiologists have long been aware of the occurrence of large and often epicardial collateral vessels after total or subtotal occlusion of a major coronary artery (fig 1​). These usually become visible within two weeks following an occlusion, and they arise from preformed arterioles.

What is the system of channels and collaterals?

Channels and Collaterals System The system of channels and collaterals constitutes the twelve regular channels, the eight extra channels, the fifteen collaterals, the twelve divergent channels, the musculo-tendinous and cutaneous regions of the twelve regular channels. 2. Channels and Collaterals Functions

What are the channels and collaterals of yin and Yang?

The channels and collaterals are the passages through which blood and qi flow to nourish yin and yang, to moisten tendons and bones, and to lubricate the joints. (2) Pathologically, channels and collaterals are the pathways through which the exogenous pathological factors are transmitted and their channels reflected.

What is the function of collateral ventilation in COPD?

Collateral ventilation is present not only in COPD lungs, but also in healthy lungs [15]. The physiological function of the collateral channels is still unknown; in COPD patients they might provide channels of low resistance to better ventilate less emphysematous lung segments.

Where do pathogenic factors go when the collaterals are full?

When the collaterals become full, the pathogenic factors will move into the channels. When the channels are full, the pathogenic factors transmit to and reside in the zang and fu organs. The interior and exterior, upper and lower parts of the body form an integrated entity through the connecting network of channels and collaterals.