Which type of mutation often results from the addition or deletion of one base pair in the DNA molecule quizlet?

Point mutation, change within a gene in which one base pair in the DNA sequence is altered.

What is a single DNA molecule called?

DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).

Which type of mutation is caused by deletion or insertion of one or two bases of the DNA?

Insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides during replication can also lead to another type of mutation known as a frameshift mutation. The outcome of a frameshift mutation is complete alteration of the amino acid sequence of a protein.

What type of mutation happens when a single base in DNA is substituted with another base for example an A becomes AG?

A missense mutation is when the change of a single base pair causes the substitution of a different amino acid in the resulting protein. This amino acid substitution may have no effect, or it may render the protein nonfunctional.

When a chromosome is broken off this is called?

A translocation occurs when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This type of rearrangement is described as balanced if no genetic material is gained or lost in the cell. If there is a gain or loss of genetic material, the translocation is described as unbalanced .

What is the three base sequence of mRNA called?

codon
Each group of three bases in mRNA constitutes a codon, and each codon specifies a particular amino acid (hence, it is a triplet code). The mRNA sequence is thus used as a template to assemble—in order—the chain of amino acids that form a protein.

What are the 3 types of mutation?

There are three types of DNA Mutations: base substitutions, deletions and insertions.

  • Base Substitutions. Single base substitutions are called point mutations, recall the point mutation Glu —–> Val which causes sickle-cell disease.
  • Deletions.
  • Insertions.

What are the two types of mutations?

Two major categories of mutations are germline mutations and somatic mutations.

  • Germline mutations occur in gametes. These mutations are especially significant because they can be transmitted to offspring and every cell in the offspring will have the mutation.
  • Somatic mutations occur in other cells of the body.

Which is the correct definition of a deletion?

Deletions are mutations in which a section of DNA is lost, or deleted. Since protein-coding DNA is divided into codons three bases long, insertions and deletions can alter a gene so that its message is no longer correctly parsed. These changes are called frameshifts.

What are the different types of mutations in DNA?

Insertions are mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the DNA. Deletions are mutations in which a section of DNA is lost, or deleted.

What do insertions and deletions do to a gene?

Since protein-coding DNA is divided into codons three bases long, insertions and deletions can alter a gene so that its message is no longer correctly parsed. These changes are called frameshifts. For example, consider the sentence, “The fat cat sat.” Each word represents a codon.

Which is an example of a substitution in a gene?

Such a substitution could: change a codon to one that encodes a different amino acid and cause a small change in the protein produced. For example, sickle cell anemia is caused by a substitution in the beta-hemoglobin gene, which alters a single amino acid in the protein produced.